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fs.h

#ifndef _LINUX_FS_H
#define _LINUX_FS_H

/*
 * This file has definitions for some important file table
 * structures etc.
 */

#include <linux/limits.h>
#include <linux/ioctl.h>

/*
 * It's silly to have NR_OPEN bigger than NR_FILE, but you can change
 * the file limit at runtime and only root can increase the per-process
 * nr_file rlimit, so it's safe to set up a ridiculously high absolute
 * upper limit on files-per-process.
 *
 * Some programs (notably those using select()) may have to be 
 * recompiled to take full advantage of the new limits..  
 */

/* Fixed constants first: */
#undef NR_OPEN
#define INR_OPEN 1024         /* Initial setting for nfile rlimits */

#define BLOCK_SIZE_BITS 10
#define BLOCK_SIZE (1<<BLOCK_SIZE_BITS)

#define SEEK_SET  0     /* seek relative to beginning of file */
#define SEEK_CUR  1     /* seek relative to current file position */
#define SEEK_END  2     /* seek relative to end of file */
#define SEEK_MAX  SEEK_END

/* And dynamically-tunable limits and defaults: */
00035 struct files_stat_struct {
      int nr_files;           /* read only */
      int nr_free_files;      /* read only */
      int max_files;          /* tunable */
};

00041 struct inodes_stat_t {
      int nr_inodes;
      int nr_unused;
      int dummy[5];           /* padding for sysctl ABI compatibility */
};


#define NR_FILE  8192   /* this can well be larger on a larger system */

#define MAY_EXEC 1
#define MAY_WRITE 2
#define MAY_READ 4
#define MAY_APPEND 8
#define MAY_ACCESS 16
#define MAY_OPEN 32

/*
 * flags in file.f_mode.  Note that FMODE_READ and FMODE_WRITE must correspond
 * to O_WRONLY and O_RDWR via the strange trick in __dentry_open()
 */

/* file is open for reading */
#define FMODE_READ            ((__force fmode_t)1)
/* file is open for writing */
#define FMODE_WRITE           ((__force fmode_t)2)
/* file is seekable */
#define FMODE_LSEEK           ((__force fmode_t)4)
/* file can be accessed using pread */
#define FMODE_PREAD           ((__force fmode_t)8)
/* file can be accessed using pwrite */
#define FMODE_PWRITE          ((__force fmode_t)16)
/* File is opened for execution with sys_execve / sys_uselib */
#define FMODE_EXEC            ((__force fmode_t)32)
/* File is opened with O_NDELAY (only set for block devices) */
#define FMODE_NDELAY          ((__force fmode_t)64)
/* File is opened with O_EXCL (only set for block devices) */
#define FMODE_EXCL            ((__force fmode_t)128)
/* File is opened using open(.., 3, ..) and is writeable only for ioctls
   (specialy hack for floppy.c) */
#define FMODE_WRITE_IOCTL     ((__force fmode_t)256)

/*
 * Don't update ctime and mtime.
 *
 * Currently a special hack for the XFS open_by_handle ioctl, but we'll
 * hopefully graduate it to a proper O_CMTIME flag supported by open(2) soon.
 */
#define FMODE_NOCMTIME        ((__force fmode_t)2048)

/*
 * The below are the various read and write types that we support. Some of
 * them include behavioral modifiers that send information down to the
 * block layer and IO scheduler. Terminology:
 *
 *    The block layer uses device plugging to defer IO a little bit, in
 *    the hope that we will see more IO very shortly. This increases
 *    coalescing of adjacent IO and thus reduces the number of IOs we
 *    have to send to the device. It also allows for better queuing,
 *    if the IO isn't mergeable. If the caller is going to be waiting
 *    for the IO, then he must ensure that the device is unplugged so
 *    that the IO is dispatched to the driver.
 *
 *    All IO is handled async in Linux. This is fine for background
 *    writes, but for reads or writes that someone waits for completion
 *    on, we want to notify the block layer and IO scheduler so that they
 *    know about it. That allows them to make better scheduling
 *    decisions. So when the below references 'sync' and 'async', it
 *    is referencing this priority hint.
 *
 * With that in mind, the available types are:
 *
 * READ                 A normal read operation. Device will be plugged.
 * READ_SYNC            A synchronous read. Device is not plugged, caller can
 *                immediately wait on this read without caring about
 *                unplugging.
 * READA          Used for read-ahead operations. Lower priority, and the
 *                 block layer could (in theory) choose to ignore this
 *                request if it runs into resource problems.
 * WRITE          A normal async write. Device will be plugged.
 * SWRITE         Like WRITE, but a special case for ll_rw_block() that
 *                tells it to lock the buffer first. Normally a buffer
 *                must be locked before doing IO.
 * WRITE_SYNC_PLUG      Synchronous write. Identical to WRITE, but passes down
 *                the hint that someone will be waiting on this IO
 *                shortly. The device must still be unplugged explicitly,
 *                WRITE_SYNC_PLUG does not do this as we could be
 *                submitting more writes before we actually wait on any
 *                of them.
 * WRITE_SYNC           Like WRITE_SYNC_PLUG, but also unplugs the device
 *                immediately after submission. The write equivalent
 *                of READ_SYNC.
 * WRITE_ODIRECT  Special case write for O_DIRECT only.
 * SWRITE_SYNC
 * SWRITE_SYNC_PLUG     Like WRITE_SYNC/WRITE_SYNC_PLUG, but locks the buffer.
 *                See SWRITE.
 * WRITE_BARRIER  Like WRITE, but tells the block layer that all
 *                previously submitted writes must be safely on storage
 *                before this one is started. Also guarantees that when
 *                this write is complete, it itself is also safely on
 *                storage. Prevents reordering of writes on both sides
 *                of this IO.
 *
 */
#define RW_MASK         1
#define RWA_MASK  2
#define READ 0
#define WRITE 1
#define READA 2         /* read-ahead  - don't block if no resources */
#define SWRITE 3  /* for ll_rw_block() - wait for buffer lock */
#define READ_SYNC (READ | (1 << BIO_RW_SYNCIO) | (1 << BIO_RW_UNPLUG))
#define READ_META (READ | (1 << BIO_RW_META))
#define WRITE_SYNC_PLUG (WRITE | (1 << BIO_RW_SYNCIO) | (1 << BIO_RW_NOIDLE))
#define WRITE_SYNC      (WRITE_SYNC_PLUG | (1 << BIO_RW_UNPLUG))
#define WRITE_ODIRECT   (WRITE | (1 << BIO_RW_SYNCIO) | (1 << BIO_RW_UNPLUG))
#define SWRITE_SYNC_PLUG      \
                  (SWRITE | (1 << BIO_RW_SYNCIO) | (1 << BIO_RW_NOIDLE))
#define SWRITE_SYNC     (SWRITE_SYNC_PLUG | (1 << BIO_RW_UNPLUG))
#define WRITE_BARRIER   (WRITE | (1 << BIO_RW_BARRIER))

/*
 * These aren't really reads or writes, they pass down information about
 * parts of device that are now unused by the file system.
 */
#define DISCARD_NOBARRIER (1 << BIO_RW_DISCARD)
#define DISCARD_BARRIER ((1 << BIO_RW_DISCARD) | (1 << BIO_RW_BARRIER))

#define SEL_IN          1
#define SEL_OUT         2
#define SEL_EX          4

/* public flags for file_system_type */
#define FS_REQUIRES_DEV 1 
#define FS_BINARY_MOUNTDATA 2
#define FS_HAS_SUBTYPE 4
#define FS_REVAL_DOT    16384 /* Check the paths ".", ".." for staleness */
#define FS_RENAME_DOES_D_MOVE 32768 /* FS will handle d_move()
                               * during rename() internally.
                               */

/*
 * These are the fs-independent mount-flags: up to 32 flags are supported
 */
#define MS_RDONLY  1    /* Mount read-only */
#define MS_NOSUID  2    /* Ignore suid and sgid bits */
#define MS_NODEV   4    /* Disallow access to device special files */
#define MS_NOEXEC  8    /* Disallow program execution */
#define MS_SYNCHRONOUS  16    /* Writes are synced at once */
#define MS_REMOUNT      32    /* Alter flags of a mounted FS */
#define MS_MANDLOCK     64    /* Allow mandatory locks on an FS */
#define MS_DIRSYNC      128   /* Directory modifications are synchronous */
#define MS_NOATIME      1024  /* Do not update access times. */
#define MS_NODIRATIME   2048  /* Do not update directory access times */
#define MS_BIND         4096
#define MS_MOVE         8192
#define MS_REC          16384
#define MS_VERBOSE      32768 /* War is peace. Verbosity is silence.
                           MS_VERBOSE is deprecated. */
#define MS_SILENT 32768
#define MS_POSIXACL     (1<<16)     /* VFS does not apply the umask */
#define MS_UNBINDABLE   (1<<17)     /* change to unbindable */
#define MS_PRIVATE      (1<<18)     /* change to private */
#define MS_SLAVE  (1<<19)     /* change to slave */
#define MS_SHARED (1<<20)     /* change to shared */
#define MS_RELATIME     (1<<21)     /* Update atime relative to mtime/ctime. */
#define MS_KERNMOUNT    (1<<22) /* this is a kern_mount call */
#define MS_I_VERSION    (1<<23) /* Update inode I_version field */
#define MS_STRICTATIME  (1<<24) /* Always perform atime updates */
#define MS_ACTIVE (1<<30)
#define MS_NOUSER (1<<31)

/*
 * Superblock flags that can be altered by MS_REMOUNT
 */
#define MS_RMT_MASK     (MS_RDONLY|MS_SYNCHRONOUS|MS_MANDLOCK|MS_I_VERSION)

/*
 * Old magic mount flag and mask
 */
#define MS_MGC_VAL 0xC0ED0000
#define MS_MGC_MSK 0xffff0000

/* Inode flags - they have nothing to superblock flags now */

#define S_SYNC          1     /* Writes are synced at once */
#define S_NOATIME 2     /* Do not update access times */
#define S_APPEND  4     /* Append-only file */
#define S_IMMUTABLE     8     /* Immutable file */
#define S_DEAD          16    /* removed, but still open directory */
#define S_NOQUOTA 32    /* Inode is not counted to quota */
#define S_DIRSYNC 64    /* Directory modifications are synchronous */
#define S_NOCMTIME      128   /* Do not update file c/mtime */
#define S_SWAPFILE      256   /* Do not truncate: swapon got its bmaps */
#define S_PRIVATE 512   /* Inode is fs-internal */

/*
 * Note that nosuid etc flags are inode-specific: setting some file-system
 * flags just means all the inodes inherit those flags by default. It might be
 * possible to override it selectively if you really wanted to with some
 * ioctl() that is not currently implemented.
 *
 * Exception: MS_RDONLY is always applied to the entire file system.
 *
 * Unfortunately, it is possible to change a filesystems flags with it mounted
 * with files in use.  This means that all of the inodes will not have their
 * i_flags updated.  Hence, i_flags no longer inherit the superblock mount
 * flags, so these have to be checked separately. -- rmk@arm.uk.linux.org
 */
#define __IS_FLG(inode,flg) ((inode)->i_sb->s_flags & (flg))

#define IS_RDONLY(inode) ((inode)->i_sb->s_flags & MS_RDONLY)
#define IS_SYNC(inode)        (__IS_FLG(inode, MS_SYNCHRONOUS) || \
                              ((inode)->i_flags & S_SYNC))
#define IS_DIRSYNC(inode)     (__IS_FLG(inode, MS_SYNCHRONOUS|MS_DIRSYNC) || \
                              ((inode)->i_flags & (S_SYNC|S_DIRSYNC)))
#define IS_MANDLOCK(inode)    __IS_FLG(inode, MS_MANDLOCK)
#define IS_NOATIME(inode)   __IS_FLG(inode, MS_RDONLY|MS_NOATIME)
#define IS_I_VERSION(inode)   __IS_FLG(inode, MS_I_VERSION)

#define IS_NOQUOTA(inode)     ((inode)->i_flags & S_NOQUOTA)
#define IS_APPEND(inode)      ((inode)->i_flags & S_APPEND)
#define IS_IMMUTABLE(inode)   ((inode)->i_flags & S_IMMUTABLE)
#define IS_POSIXACL(inode)    __IS_FLG(inode, MS_POSIXACL)

#define IS_DEADDIR(inode)     ((inode)->i_flags & S_DEAD)
#define IS_NOCMTIME(inode)    ((inode)->i_flags & S_NOCMTIME)
#define IS_SWAPFILE(inode)    ((inode)->i_flags & S_SWAPFILE)
#define IS_PRIVATE(inode)     ((inode)->i_flags & S_PRIVATE)

/* the read-only stuff doesn't really belong here, but any other place is
   probably as bad and I don't want to create yet another include file. */

#define BLKROSET   _IO(0x12,93)     /* set device read-only (0 = read-write) */
#define BLKROGET   _IO(0x12,94)     /* get read-only status (0 = read_write) */
#define BLKRRPART  _IO(0x12,95)     /* re-read partition table */
#define BLKGETSIZE _IO(0x12,96)     /* return device size /512 (long *arg) */
#define BLKFLSBUF  _IO(0x12,97)     /* flush buffer cache */
#define BLKRASET   _IO(0x12,98)     /* set read ahead for block device */
#define BLKRAGET   _IO(0x12,99)     /* get current read ahead setting */
#define BLKFRASET  _IO(0x12,100)/* set filesystem (mm/filemap.c) read-ahead */
#define BLKFRAGET  _IO(0x12,101)/* get filesystem (mm/filemap.c) read-ahead */
#define BLKSECTSET _IO(0x12,102)/* set max sectors per request (ll_rw_blk.c) */
#define BLKSECTGET _IO(0x12,103)/* get max sectors per request (ll_rw_blk.c) */
#define BLKSSZGET  _IO(0x12,104)/* get block device sector size */
#if 0
#define BLKPG      _IO(0x12,105)/* See blkpg.h */

/* Some people are morons.  Do not use sizeof! */

#define BLKELVGET  _IOR(0x12,106,size_t)/* elevator get */
#define BLKELVSET  _IOW(0x12,107,size_t)/* elevator set */
/* This was here just to show that the number is taken -
   probably all these _IO(0x12,*) ioctls should be moved to blkpg.h. */
#endif
/* A jump here: 108-111 have been used for various private purposes. */
#define BLKBSZGET  _IOR(0x12,112,size_t)
#define BLKBSZSET  _IOW(0x12,113,size_t)
#define BLKGETSIZE64 _IOR(0x12,114,size_t)      /* return device size in bytes (u64 *arg) */
#define BLKTRACESETUP _IOWR(0x12,115,struct blk_user_trace_setup)
#define BLKTRACESTART _IO(0x12,116)
#define BLKTRACESTOP _IO(0x12,117)
#define BLKTRACETEARDOWN _IO(0x12,118)
#define BLKDISCARD _IO(0x12,119)

#define BMAP_IOCTL 1          /* obsolete - kept for compatibility */
#define FIBMAP       _IO(0x00,1)    /* bmap access */
#define FIGETBSZ   _IO(0x00,2)      /* get the block size used for bmap */
#define FIFREEZE  _IOWR('X', 119, int)    /* Freeze */
#define FITHAW          _IOWR('X', 120, int)    /* Thaw */

#define     FS_IOC_GETFLAGS               _IOR('f', 1, long)
#define     FS_IOC_SETFLAGS               _IOW('f', 2, long)
#define     FS_IOC_GETVERSION       _IOR('v', 1, long)
#define     FS_IOC_SETVERSION       _IOW('v', 2, long)
#define FS_IOC_FIEMAP               _IOWR('f', 11, struct fiemap)
#define FS_IOC32_GETFLAGS           _IOR('f', 1, int)
#define FS_IOC32_SETFLAGS           _IOW('f', 2, int)
#define FS_IOC32_GETVERSION         _IOR('v', 1, int)
#define FS_IOC32_SETVERSION         _IOW('v', 2, int)

/*
 * Inode flags (FS_IOC_GETFLAGS / FS_IOC_SETFLAGS)
 */
#define     FS_SECRM_FL             0x00000001 /* Secure deletion */
#define     FS_UNRM_FL              0x00000002 /* Undelete */
#define     FS_COMPR_FL             0x00000004 /* Compress file */
#define FS_SYNC_FL                  0x00000008 /* Synchronous updates */
#define FS_IMMUTABLE_FL             0x00000010 /* Immutable file */
#define FS_APPEND_FL                0x00000020 /* writes to file may only append */
#define FS_NODUMP_FL                0x00000040 /* do not dump file */
#define FS_NOATIME_FL               0x00000080 /* do not update atime */
/* Reserved for compression usage... */
#define FS_DIRTY_FL                 0x00000100
#define FS_COMPRBLK_FL              0x00000200 /* One or more compressed clusters */
#define FS_NOCOMP_FL                0x00000400 /* Don't compress */
#define FS_ECOMPR_FL                0x00000800 /* Compression error */
/* End compression flags --- maybe not all used */
#define FS_BTREE_FL                 0x00001000 /* btree format dir */
#define FS_INDEX_FL                 0x00001000 /* hash-indexed directory */
#define FS_IMAGIC_FL                0x00002000 /* AFS directory */
#define FS_JOURNAL_DATA_FL          0x00004000 /* Reserved for ext3 */
#define FS_NOTAIL_FL                0x00008000 /* file tail should not be merged */
#define FS_DIRSYNC_FL               0x00010000 /* dirsync behaviour (directories only) */
#define FS_TOPDIR_FL                0x00020000 /* Top of directory hierarchies*/
#define FS_EXTENT_FL                0x00080000 /* Extents */
#define FS_DIRECTIO_FL              0x00100000 /* Use direct i/o */
#define FS_RESERVED_FL              0x80000000 /* reserved for ext2 lib */

#define FS_FL_USER_VISIBLE          0x0003DFFF /* User visible flags */
#define FS_FL_USER_MODIFIABLE       0x000380FF /* User modifiable flags */


#define SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WAIT_BEFORE 1
#define SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WRITE       2
#define SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WAIT_AFTER  4

#ifdef __KERNEL__

#include <linux/linkage.h>
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/kdev_t.h>
#include <linux/dcache.h>
#include <linux/path.h>
#include <linux/stat.h>
#include <linux/cache.h>
#include <linux/kobject.h>
#include <linux/list.h>
#include <linux/radix-tree.h>
#include <linux/prio_tree.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/pid.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <linux/semaphore.h>
#include <linux/fiemap.h>

#include <asm/atomic.h>
#include <asm/byteorder.h>

struct export_operations;
struct hd_geometry;
struct iovec;
struct nameidata;
struct kiocb;
struct pipe_inode_info;
struct poll_table_struct;
struct kstatfs;
struct vm_area_struct;
struct vfsmount;
struct cred;

extern void __init inode_init(void);
extern void __init inode_init_early(void);
extern void __init files_init(unsigned long);

extern struct files_stat_struct files_stat;
extern int get_max_files(void);
extern int sysctl_nr_open;
extern struct inodes_stat_t inodes_stat;
extern int leases_enable, lease_break_time;
#ifdef CONFIG_DNOTIFY
extern int dir_notify_enable;
#endif

struct buffer_head;
typedef int (get_block_t)(struct inode *inode, sector_t iblock,
                  struct buffer_head *bh_result, int create);
typedef void (dio_iodone_t)(struct kiocb *iocb, loff_t offset,
                  ssize_t bytes, void *private);

/*
 * Attribute flags.  These should be or-ed together to figure out what
 * has been changed!
 */
#define ATTR_MODE (1 << 0)
#define ATTR_UID  (1 << 1)
#define ATTR_GID  (1 << 2)
#define ATTR_SIZE (1 << 3)
#define ATTR_ATIME      (1 << 4)
#define ATTR_MTIME      (1 << 5)
#define ATTR_CTIME      (1 << 6)
#define ATTR_ATIME_SET  (1 << 7)
#define ATTR_MTIME_SET  (1 << 8)
#define ATTR_FORCE      (1 << 9) /* Not a change, but a change it */
#define ATTR_ATTR_FLAG  (1 << 10)
#define ATTR_KILL_SUID  (1 << 11)
#define ATTR_KILL_SGID  (1 << 12)
#define ATTR_FILE (1 << 13)
#define ATTR_KILL_PRIV  (1 << 14)
#define ATTR_OPEN (1 << 15) /* Truncating from open(O_TRUNC) */
#define ATTR_TIMES_SET  (1 << 16)

/*
 * This is the Inode Attributes structure, used for notify_change().  It
 * uses the above definitions as flags, to know which values have changed.
 * Also, in this manner, a Filesystem can look at only the values it cares
 * about.  Basically, these are the attributes that the VFS layer can
 * request to change from the FS layer.
 *
 * Derek Atkins <warlord@MIT.EDU> 94-10-20
 */
struct iattr {
      unsigned int      ia_valid;
      umode_t           ia_mode;
      uid_t       ia_uid;
      gid_t       ia_gid;
      loff_t            ia_size;
      struct timespec   ia_atime;
      struct timespec   ia_mtime;
      struct timespec   ia_ctime;

      /*
       * Not an attribute, but an auxilary info for filesystems wanting to
       * implement an ftruncate() like method.  NOTE: filesystem should
       * check for (ia_valid & ATTR_FILE), and not for (ia_file != NULL).
       */
      struct file *ia_file;
};

/*
 * Includes for diskquotas.
 */
#include <linux/quota.h>

/** 
 * enum positive_aop_returns - aop return codes with specific semantics
 *
 * @AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE: Informs the caller that page writeback has
 *                    completed, that the page is still locked, and
 *                    should be considered active.  The VM uses this hint
 *                    to return the page to the active list -- it won't
 *                    be a candidate for writeback again in the near
 *                    future.  Other callers must be careful to unlock
 *                    the page if they get this return.  Returned by
 *                    writepage(); 
 *
 * @AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE: The AOP method that was handed a locked page has
 *                unlocked it and the page might have been truncated.
 *                The caller should back up to acquiring a new page and
 *                trying again.  The aop will be taking reasonable
 *                precautions not to livelock.  If the caller held a page
 *                reference, it should drop it before retrying.  Returned
 *                by readpage().
 *
 * address_space_operation functions return these large constants to indicate
 * special semantics to the caller.  These are much larger than the bytes in a
 * page to allow for functions that return the number of bytes operated on in a
 * given page.
 */

enum positive_aop_returns {
      AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE  = 0x80000,
      AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE      = 0x80001,
};

#define AOP_FLAG_UNINTERRUPTIBLE    0x0001 /* will not do a short write */
#define AOP_FLAG_CONT_EXPAND        0x0002 /* called from cont_expand */
#define AOP_FLAG_NOFS               0x0004 /* used by filesystem to direct
                                    * helper code (eg buffer layer)
                                    * to clear GFP_FS from alloc */

/*
 * oh the beauties of C type declarations.
 */
struct page;
struct address_space;
struct writeback_control;

struct iov_iter {
      const struct iovec *iov;
      unsigned long nr_segs;
      size_t iov_offset;
      size_t count;
};

size_t iov_iter_copy_from_user_atomic(struct page *page,
            struct iov_iter *i, unsigned long offset, size_t bytes);
size_t iov_iter_copy_from_user(struct page *page,
            struct iov_iter *i, unsigned long offset, size_t bytes);
void iov_iter_advance(struct iov_iter *i, size_t bytes);
int iov_iter_fault_in_readable(struct iov_iter *i, size_t bytes);
size_t iov_iter_single_seg_count(struct iov_iter *i);

static inline void iov_iter_init(struct iov_iter *i,
                  const struct iovec *iov, unsigned long nr_segs,
                  size_t count, size_t written)
{
      i->iov = iov;
      i->nr_segs = nr_segs;
      i->iov_offset = 0;
      i->count = count + written;

      iov_iter_advance(i, written);
}

static inline size_t iov_iter_count(struct iov_iter *i)
{
      return i->count;
}

/*
 * "descriptor" for what we're up to with a read.
 * This allows us to use the same read code yet
 * have multiple different users of the data that
 * we read from a file.
 *
 * The simplest case just copies the data to user
 * mode.
 */
typedef struct {
      size_t written;
      size_t count;
      union {
            char __user *buf;
            void *data;
      } arg;
      int error;
} read_descriptor_t;

typedef int (*read_actor_t)(read_descriptor_t *, struct page *,
            unsigned long, unsigned long);

struct address_space_operations {
      int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
      int (*readpage)(struct file *, struct page *);
      void (*sync_page)(struct page *);

      /* Write back some dirty pages from this mapping. */
      int (*writepages)(struct address_space *, struct writeback_control *);

      /* Set a page dirty.  Return true if this dirtied it */
      int (*set_page_dirty)(struct page *page);

      int (*readpages)(struct file *filp, struct address_space *mapping,
                  struct list_head *pages, unsigned nr_pages);

      int (*write_begin)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
                        struct page **pagep, void **fsdata);
      int (*write_end)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
                        struct page *page, void *fsdata);

      /* Unfortunately this kludge is needed for FIBMAP. Don't use it */
      sector_t (*bmap)(struct address_space *, sector_t);
      void (*invalidatepage) (struct page *, unsigned long);
      int (*releasepage) (struct page *, gfp_t);
      ssize_t (*direct_IO)(int, struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *iov,
                  loff_t offset, unsigned long nr_segs);
      int (*get_xip_mem)(struct address_space *, pgoff_t, int,
                                    void **, unsigned long *);
      /* migrate the contents of a page to the specified target */
      int (*migratepage) (struct address_space *,
                  struct page *, struct page *);
      int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
      int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, read_descriptor_t *,
                              unsigned long);
};

/*
 * pagecache_write_begin/pagecache_write_end must be used by general code
 * to write into the pagecache.
 */
int pagecache_write_begin(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
                        struct page **pagep, void **fsdata);

int pagecache_write_end(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
                        struct page *page, void *fsdata);

struct backing_dev_info;
struct address_space {
      struct inode            *host;            /* owner: inode, block_device */
      struct radix_tree_root  page_tree;  /* radix tree of all pages */
      spinlock_t        tree_lock;  /* and lock protecting it */
      unsigned int            i_mmap_writable;/* count VM_SHARED mappings */
      struct prio_tree_root   i_mmap;           /* tree of private and shared mappings */
      struct list_head  i_mmap_nonlinear;/*list VM_NONLINEAR mappings */
      spinlock_t        i_mmap_lock;      /* protect tree, count, list */
      unsigned int            truncate_count;   /* Cover race condition with truncate */
      unsigned long           nrpages;    /* number of total pages */
      pgoff_t                 writeback_index;/* writeback starts here */
      const struct address_space_operations *a_ops;   /* methods */
      unsigned long           flags;            /* error bits/gfp mask */
      struct backing_dev_info *backing_dev_info; /* device readahead, etc */
      spinlock_t        private_lock;     /* for use by the address_space */
      struct list_head  private_list;     /* ditto */
      struct address_space    *assoc_mapping;   /* ditto */
} __attribute__((aligned(sizeof(long))));
      /*
       * On most architectures that alignment is already the case; but
       * must be enforced here for CRIS, to let the least signficant bit
       * of struct page's "mapping" pointer be used for PAGE_MAPPING_ANON.
       */

struct block_device {
      dev_t             bd_dev;  /* not a kdev_t - it's a search key */
      struct inode *          bd_inode;   /* will die */
      struct super_block *    bd_super;
      int               bd_openers;
      struct mutex            bd_mutex;   /* open/close mutex */
      struct semaphore  bd_mount_sem;
      struct list_head  bd_inodes;
      void *                  bd_holder;
      int               bd_holders;
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
      struct list_head  bd_holder_list;
#endif
      struct block_device *   bd_contains;
      unsigned          bd_block_size;
      struct hd_struct *      bd_part;
      /* number of times partitions within this device have been opened. */
      unsigned          bd_part_count;
      int               bd_invalidated;
      struct gendisk *  bd_disk;
      struct list_head  bd_list;
      struct backing_dev_info *bd_inode_backing_dev_info;
      /*
       * Private data.  You must have bd_claim'ed the block_device
       * to use this.  NOTE:  bd_claim allows an owner to claim
       * the same device multiple times, the owner must take special
       * care to not mess up bd_private for that case.
       */
      unsigned long           bd_private;

      /* The counter of freeze processes */
      int               bd_fsfreeze_count;
      /* Mutex for freeze */
      struct mutex            bd_fsfreeze_mutex;
};

/*
 * Radix-tree tags, for tagging dirty and writeback pages within the pagecache
 * radix trees
 */
#define PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY   0
#define PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK     1

int mapping_tagged(struct address_space *mapping, int tag);

/*
 * Might pages of this file be mapped into userspace?
 */
static inline int mapping_mapped(struct address_space *mapping)
{
      return      !prio_tree_empty(&mapping->i_mmap) ||
            !list_empty(&mapping->i_mmap_nonlinear);
}

/*
 * Might pages of this file have been modified in userspace?
 * Note that i_mmap_writable counts all VM_SHARED vmas: do_mmap_pgoff
 * marks vma as VM_SHARED if it is shared, and the file was opened for
 * writing i.e. vma may be mprotected writable even if now readonly.
 */
static inline int mapping_writably_mapped(struct address_space *mapping)
{
      return mapping->i_mmap_writable != 0;
}

/*
 * Use sequence counter to get consistent i_size on 32-bit processors.
 */
#if BITS_PER_LONG==32 && defined(CONFIG_SMP)
#include <linux/seqlock.h>
#define __NEED_I_SIZE_ORDERED
#define i_size_ordered_init(inode) seqcount_init(&inode->i_size_seqcount)
#else
#define i_size_ordered_init(inode) do { } while (0)
#endif

struct posix_acl;
#define ACL_NOT_CACHED ((void *)(-1))

struct inode {
      struct hlist_node i_hash;
      struct list_head  i_list;
      struct list_head  i_sb_list;
      struct list_head  i_dentry;
      unsigned long           i_ino;
      atomic_t          i_count;
      unsigned int            i_nlink;
      uid_t             i_uid;
      gid_t             i_gid;
      dev_t             i_rdev;
      u64               i_version;
      loff_t                  i_size;
#ifdef __NEED_I_SIZE_ORDERED
      seqcount_t        i_size_seqcount;
#endif
      struct timespec         i_atime;
      struct timespec         i_mtime;
      struct timespec         i_ctime;
      blkcnt_t          i_blocks;
      unsigned int            i_blkbits;
      unsigned short          i_bytes;
      umode_t                 i_mode;
      spinlock_t        i_lock;     /* i_blocks, i_bytes, maybe i_size */
      struct mutex            i_mutex;
      struct rw_semaphore     i_alloc_sem;
      const struct inode_operations *i_op;
      const struct file_operations  *i_fop;     /* former ->i_op->default_file_ops */
      struct super_block      *i_sb;
      struct file_lock  *i_flock;
      struct address_space    *i_mapping;
      struct address_space    i_data;
#ifdef CONFIG_QUOTA
      struct dquot            *i_dquot[MAXQUOTAS];
#endif
      struct list_head  i_devices;
      union {
            struct pipe_inode_info  *i_pipe;
            struct block_device     *i_bdev;
            struct cdev       *i_cdev;
      };

      __u32             i_generation;

#ifdef CONFIG_FSNOTIFY
      __u32             i_fsnotify_mask; /* all events this inode cares about */
      struct hlist_head i_fsnotify_mark_entries; /* fsnotify mark entries */
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_INOTIFY
      struct list_head  inotify_watches; /* watches on this inode */
      struct mutex            inotify_mutex;    /* protects the watches list */
#endif

      unsigned long           i_state;
      unsigned long           dirtied_when;     /* jiffies of first dirtying */

      unsigned int            i_flags;

      atomic_t          i_writecount;
#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITY
      void              *i_security;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_FS_POSIX_ACL
      struct posix_acl  *i_acl;
      struct posix_acl  *i_default_acl;
#endif
      void              *i_private; /* fs or device private pointer */
};

/*
 * inode->i_mutex nesting subclasses for the lock validator:
 *
 * 0: the object of the current VFS operation
 * 1: parent
 * 2: child/target
 * 3: quota file
 *
 * The locking order between these classes is
 * parent -> child -> normal -> xattr -> quota
 */
enum inode_i_mutex_lock_class
{
      I_MUTEX_NORMAL,
      I_MUTEX_PARENT,
      I_MUTEX_CHILD,
      I_MUTEX_XATTR,
      I_MUTEX_QUOTA
};

/*
 * NOTE: in a 32bit arch with a preemptable kernel and
 * an UP compile the i_size_read/write must be atomic
 * with respect to the local cpu (unlike with preempt disabled),
 * but they don't need to be atomic with respect to other cpus like in
 * true SMP (so they need either to either locally disable irq around
 * the read or for example on x86 they can be still implemented as a
 * cmpxchg8b without the need of the lock prefix). For SMP compiles
 * and 64bit archs it makes no difference if preempt is enabled or not.
 */
static inline loff_t i_size_read(const struct inode *inode)
{
#if BITS_PER_LONG==32 && defined(CONFIG_SMP)
      loff_t i_size;
      unsigned int seq;

      do {
            seq = read_seqcount_begin(&inode->i_size_seqcount);
            i_size = inode->i_size;
      } while (read_seqcount_retry(&inode->i_size_seqcount, seq));
      return i_size;
#elif BITS_PER_LONG==32 && defined(CONFIG_PREEMPT)
      loff_t i_size;

      preempt_disable();
      i_size = inode->i_size;
      preempt_enable();
      return i_size;
#else
      return inode->i_size;
#endif
}

/*
 * NOTE: unlike i_size_read(), i_size_write() does need locking around it
 * (normally i_mutex), otherwise on 32bit/SMP an update of i_size_seqcount
 * can be lost, resulting in subsequent i_size_read() calls spinning forever.
 */
static inline void i_size_write(struct inode *inode, loff_t i_size)
{
#if BITS_PER_LONG==32 && defined(CONFIG_SMP)
      write_seqcount_begin(&inode->i_size_seqcount);
      inode->i_size = i_size;
      write_seqcount_end(&inode->i_size_seqcount);
#elif BITS_PER_LONG==32 && defined(CONFIG_PREEMPT)
      preempt_disable();
      inode->i_size = i_size;
      preempt_enable();
#else
      inode->i_size = i_size;
#endif
}

static inline unsigned iminor(const struct inode *inode)
{
      return MINOR(inode->i_rdev);
}

static inline unsigned imajor(const struct inode *inode)
{
      return MAJOR(inode->i_rdev);
}

extern struct block_device *I_BDEV(struct inode *inode);

struct fown_struct {
      rwlock_t lock;          /* protects pid, uid, euid fields */
      struct pid *pid;  /* pid or -pgrp where SIGIO should be sent */
      enum pid_type pid_type; /* Kind of process group SIGIO should be sent to */
      uid_t uid, euid;  /* uid/euid of process setting the owner */
      int signum;       /* posix.1b rt signal to be delivered on IO */
};

/*
 * Track a single file's readahead state
 */
struct file_ra_state {
      pgoff_t start;                /* where readahead started */
      unsigned int size;            /* # of readahead pages */
      unsigned int async_size;      /* do asynchronous readahead when
                                 there are only # of pages ahead */

      unsigned int ra_pages;        /* Maximum readahead window */
      unsigned int mmap_miss;       /* Cache miss stat for mmap accesses */
      loff_t prev_pos;        /* Cache last read() position */
};

/*
 * Check if @index falls in the readahead windows.
 */
static inline int ra_has_index(struct file_ra_state *ra, pgoff_t index)
{
      return (index >= ra->start &&
            index <  ra->start + ra->size);
}

#define FILE_MNT_WRITE_TAKEN  1
#define FILE_MNT_WRITE_RELEASED     2

struct file {
      /*
       * fu_list becomes invalid after file_free is called and queued via
       * fu_rcuhead for RCU freeing
       */
      union {
            struct list_head  fu_list;
            struct rcu_head   fu_rcuhead;
      } f_u;
      struct path       f_path;
#define f_dentry  f_path.dentry
#define f_vfsmnt  f_path.mnt
      const struct file_operations  *f_op;
      spinlock_t        f_lock;  /* f_ep_links, f_flags, no IRQ */
      atomic_long_t           f_count;
      unsigned int            f_flags;
      fmode_t                 f_mode;
      loff_t                  f_pos;
      struct fown_struct      f_owner;
      const struct cred *f_cred;
      struct file_ra_state    f_ra;

      u64               f_version;
#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITY
      void              *f_security;
#endif
      /* needed for tty driver, and maybe others */
      void              *private_data;

#ifdef CONFIG_EPOLL
      /* Used by fs/eventpoll.c to link all the hooks to this file */
      struct list_head  f_ep_links;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_EPOLL */
      struct address_space    *f_mapping;
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_WRITECOUNT
      unsigned long f_mnt_write_state;
#endif
};
extern spinlock_t files_lock;
#define file_list_lock() spin_lock(&files_lock);
#define file_list_unlock() spin_unlock(&files_lock);

#define get_file(x)     atomic_long_inc(&(x)->f_count)
#define file_count(x)   atomic_long_read(&(x)->f_count)

#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_WRITECOUNT
static inline void file_take_write(struct file *f)
{
      WARN_ON(f->f_mnt_write_state != 0);
      f->f_mnt_write_state = FILE_MNT_WRITE_TAKEN;
}
static inline void file_release_write(struct file *f)
{
      f->f_mnt_write_state |= FILE_MNT_WRITE_RELEASED;
}
static inline void file_reset_write(struct file *f)
{
      f->f_mnt_write_state = 0;
}
static inline void file_check_state(struct file *f)
{
      /*
       * At this point, either both or neither of these bits
       * should be set.
       */
      WARN_ON(f->f_mnt_write_state == FILE_MNT_WRITE_TAKEN);
      WARN_ON(f->f_mnt_write_state == FILE_MNT_WRITE_RELEASED);
}
static inline int file_check_writeable(struct file *f)
{
      if (f->f_mnt_write_state == FILE_MNT_WRITE_TAKEN)
            return 0;
      printk(KERN_WARNING "writeable file with no "
                      "mnt_want_write()\n");
      WARN_ON(1);
      return -EINVAL;
}
#else /* !CONFIG_DEBUG_WRITECOUNT */
static inline void file_take_write(struct file *filp) {}
static inline void file_release_write(struct file *filp) {}
static inline void file_reset_write(struct file *filp) {}
static inline void file_check_state(struct file *filp) {}
static inline int file_check_writeable(struct file *filp)
{
      return 0;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_DEBUG_WRITECOUNT */

#define     MAX_NON_LFS ((1UL<<31) - 1)

/* Page cache limit. The filesystems should put that into their s_maxbytes 
   limits, otherwise bad things can happen in VM. */ 
#if BITS_PER_LONG==32
#define MAX_LFS_FILESIZE      (((u64)PAGE_CACHE_SIZE << (BITS_PER_LONG-1))-1) 
#elif BITS_PER_LONG==64
#define MAX_LFS_FILESIZE      0x7fffffffffffffffUL
#endif

#define FL_POSIX  1
#define FL_FLOCK  2
#define FL_ACCESS 8     /* not trying to lock, just looking */
#define FL_EXISTS 16    /* when unlocking, test for existence */
#define FL_LEASE  32    /* lease held on this file */
#define FL_CLOSE  64    /* unlock on close */
#define FL_SLEEP  128   /* A blocking lock */

/*
 * Special return value from posix_lock_file() and vfs_lock_file() for
 * asynchronous locking.
 */
#define FILE_LOCK_DEFERRED 1

/*
 * The POSIX file lock owner is determined by
 * the "struct files_struct" in the thread group
 * (or NULL for no owner - BSD locks).
 *
 * Lockd stuffs a "host" pointer into this.
 */
typedef struct files_struct *fl_owner_t;

struct file_lock_operations {
      void (*fl_copy_lock)(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
      void (*fl_release_private)(struct file_lock *);
};

struct lock_manager_operations {
      int (*fl_compare_owner)(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
      void (*fl_notify)(struct file_lock *);    /* unblock callback */
      int (*fl_grant)(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *, int);
      void (*fl_copy_lock)(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
      void (*fl_release_private)(struct file_lock *);
      void (*fl_break)(struct file_lock *);
      int (*fl_mylease)(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
      int (*fl_change)(struct file_lock **, int);
};

struct lock_manager {
      struct list_head list;
};

void locks_start_grace(struct lock_manager *);
void locks_end_grace(struct lock_manager *);
int locks_in_grace(void);

/* that will die - we need it for nfs_lock_info */
#include <linux/nfs_fs_i.h>

struct file_lock {
      struct file_lock *fl_next;    /* singly linked list for this inode  */
      struct list_head fl_link;     /* doubly linked list of all locks */
      struct list_head fl_block;    /* circular list of blocked processes */
      fl_owner_t fl_owner;
      unsigned char fl_flags;
      unsigned char fl_type;
      unsigned int fl_pid;
      struct pid *fl_nspid;
      wait_queue_head_t fl_wait;
      struct file *fl_file;
      loff_t fl_start;
      loff_t fl_end;

      struct fasync_struct *  fl_fasync; /* for lease break notifications */
      unsigned long fl_break_time;  /* for nonblocking lease breaks */

      struct file_lock_operations *fl_ops;      /* Callbacks for filesystems */
      struct lock_manager_operations *fl_lmops; /* Callbacks for lockmanagers */
      union {
            struct nfs_lock_info    nfs_fl;
            struct nfs4_lock_info   nfs4_fl;
            struct {
                  struct list_head link;  /* link in AFS vnode's pending_locks list */
                  int state;        /* state of grant or error if -ve */
            } afs;
      } fl_u;
};

/* The following constant reflects the upper bound of the file/locking space */
#ifndef OFFSET_MAX
#define INT_LIMIT(x)    (~((x)1 << (sizeof(x)*8 - 1)))
#define OFFSET_MAX      INT_LIMIT(loff_t)
#define OFFT_OFFSET_MAX INT_LIMIT(off_t)
#endif

#include <linux/fcntl.h>

extern void send_sigio(struct fown_struct *fown, int fd, int band);

/* fs/sync.c */
extern int do_sync_mapping_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t offset,
                  loff_t endbyte, unsigned int flags);

#ifdef CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING
extern int fcntl_getlk(struct file *, struct flock __user *);
extern int fcntl_setlk(unsigned int, struct file *, unsigned int,
                  struct flock __user *);

#if BITS_PER_LONG == 32
extern int fcntl_getlk64(struct file *, struct flock64 __user *);
extern int fcntl_setlk64(unsigned int, struct file *, unsigned int,
                  struct flock64 __user *);
#endif

extern int fcntl_setlease(unsigned int fd, struct file *filp, long arg);
extern int fcntl_getlease(struct file *filp);

/* fs/locks.c */
extern void locks_init_lock(struct file_lock *);
extern void locks_copy_lock(struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
extern void __locks_copy_lock(struct file_lock *, const struct file_lock *);
extern void locks_remove_posix(struct file *, fl_owner_t);
extern void locks_remove_flock(struct file *);
extern void locks_release_private(struct file_lock *);
extern void posix_test_lock(struct file *, struct file_lock *);
extern int posix_lock_file(struct file *, struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
extern int posix_lock_file_wait(struct file *, struct file_lock *);
extern int posix_unblock_lock(struct file *, struct file_lock *);
extern int vfs_test_lock(struct file *, struct file_lock *);
extern int vfs_lock_file(struct file *, unsigned int, struct file_lock *, struct file_lock *);
extern int vfs_cancel_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl);
extern int flock_lock_file_wait(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl);
extern int __break_lease(struct inode *inode, unsigned int flags);
extern void lease_get_mtime(struct inode *, struct timespec *time);
extern int generic_setlease(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **);
extern int vfs_setlease(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **);
extern int lease_modify(struct file_lock **, int);
extern int lock_may_read(struct inode *, loff_t start, unsigned long count);
extern int lock_may_write(struct inode *, loff_t start, unsigned long count);
#else /* !CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING */
static inline int fcntl_getlk(struct file *file, struct flock __user *user)
{
      return -EINVAL;
}

static inline int fcntl_setlk(unsigned int fd, struct file *file,
                        unsigned int cmd, struct flock __user *user)
{
      return -EACCES;
}

#if BITS_PER_LONG == 32
static inline int fcntl_getlk64(struct file *file, struct flock64 __user *user)
{
      return -EINVAL;
}

static inline int fcntl_setlk64(unsigned int fd, struct file *file,
                        unsigned int cmd, struct flock64 __user *user)
{
      return -EACCES;
}
#endif
static inline int fcntl_setlease(unsigned int fd, struct file *filp, long arg)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int fcntl_getlease(struct file *filp)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline void locks_init_lock(struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return;
}

static inline void __locks_copy_lock(struct file_lock *new, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return;
}

static inline void locks_copy_lock(struct file_lock *new, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return;
}

static inline void locks_remove_posix(struct file *filp, fl_owner_t owner)
{
      return;
}

static inline void locks_remove_flock(struct file *filp)
{
      return;
}

static inline void posix_test_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return;
}

static inline int posix_lock_file(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl,
                          struct file_lock *conflock)
{
      return -ENOLCK;
}

static inline int posix_lock_file_wait(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return -ENOLCK;
}

static inline int posix_unblock_lock(struct file *filp,
                             struct file_lock *waiter)
{
      return -ENOENT;
}

static inline int vfs_test_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int vfs_lock_file(struct file *filp, unsigned int cmd,
                        struct file_lock *fl, struct file_lock *conf)
{
      return -ENOLCK;
}

static inline int vfs_cancel_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int flock_lock_file_wait(struct file *filp,
                               struct file_lock *request)
{
      return -ENOLCK;
}

static inline int __break_lease(struct inode *inode, unsigned int mode)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline void lease_get_mtime(struct inode *inode, struct timespec *time)
{
      return;
}

static inline int generic_setlease(struct file *filp, long arg,
                            struct file_lock **flp)
{
      return -EINVAL;
}

static inline int vfs_setlease(struct file *filp, long arg,
                         struct file_lock **lease)
{
      return -EINVAL;
}

static inline int lease_modify(struct file_lock **before, int arg)
{
      return -EINVAL;
}

static inline int lock_may_read(struct inode *inode, loff_t start,
                        unsigned long len)
{
      return 1;
}

static inline int lock_may_write(struct inode *inode, loff_t start,
                         unsigned long len)
{
      return 1;
}

#endif /* !CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING */


struct fasync_struct {
      int   magic;
      int   fa_fd;
      struct      fasync_struct     *fa_next; /* singly linked list */
      struct      file        *fa_file;
};

#define FASYNC_MAGIC 0x4601

/* SMP safe fasync helpers: */
extern int fasync_helper(int, struct file *, int, struct fasync_struct **);
/* can be called from interrupts */
extern void kill_fasync(struct fasync_struct **, int, int);
/* only for net: no internal synchronization */
extern void __kill_fasync(struct fasync_struct *, int, int);

extern int __f_setown(struct file *filp, struct pid *, enum pid_type, int force);
extern int f_setown(struct file *filp, unsigned long arg, int force);
extern void f_delown(struct file *filp);
extern pid_t f_getown(struct file *filp);
extern int send_sigurg(struct fown_struct *fown);

/*
 *    Umount options
 */

#define MNT_FORCE 0x00000001  /* Attempt to forcibily umount */
#define MNT_DETACH      0x00000002  /* Just detach from the tree */
#define MNT_EXPIRE      0x00000004  /* Mark for expiry */

extern struct list_head super_blocks;
extern spinlock_t sb_lock;

#define sb_entry(list)  list_entry((list), struct super_block, s_list)
#define S_BIAS (1<<30)
struct super_block {
      struct list_head  s_list;           /* Keep this first */
      dev_t             s_dev;            /* search index; _not_ kdev_t */
      unsigned long           s_blocksize;
      unsigned char           s_blocksize_bits;
      unsigned char           s_dirt;
      unsigned long long      s_maxbytes; /* Max file size */
      struct file_system_type *s_type;
      const struct super_operations *s_op;
      struct dquot_operations *dq_op;
      struct quotactl_ops     *s_qcop;
      const struct export_operations *s_export_op;
      unsigned long           s_flags;
      unsigned long           s_magic;
      struct dentry           *s_root;
      struct rw_semaphore     s_umount;
      struct mutex            s_lock;
      int               s_count;
      int               s_need_sync;
      atomic_t          s_active;
#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITY
      void                    *s_security;
#endif
      struct xattr_handler    **s_xattr;

      struct list_head  s_inodes;   /* all inodes */
      struct list_head  s_dirty;    /* dirty inodes */
      struct list_head  s_io;       /* parked for writeback */
      struct list_head  s_more_io;  /* parked for more writeback */
      struct hlist_head s_anon;           /* anonymous dentries for (nfs) exporting */
      struct list_head  s_files;
      /* s_dentry_lru and s_nr_dentry_unused are protected by dcache_lock */
      struct list_head  s_dentry_lru;     /* unused dentry lru */
      int               s_nr_dentry_unused;     /* # of dentry on lru */

      struct block_device     *s_bdev;
      struct mtd_info         *s_mtd;
      struct list_head  s_instances;
      struct quota_info s_dquot;    /* Diskquota specific options */

      int               s_frozen;
      wait_queue_head_t s_wait_unfrozen;

      char s_id[32];                      /* Informational name */

      void              *s_fs_info; /* Filesystem private info */
      fmode_t                 s_mode;

      /*
       * The next field is for VFS *only*. No filesystems have any business
       * even looking at it. You had been warned.
       */
      struct mutex s_vfs_rename_mutex;    /* Kludge */

      /* Granularity of c/m/atime in ns.
         Cannot be worse than a second */
      u32            s_time_gran;

      /*
       * Filesystem subtype.  If non-empty the filesystem type field
       * in /proc/mounts will be "type.subtype"
       */
      char *s_subtype;

      /*
       * Saved mount options for lazy filesystems using
       * generic_show_options()
       */
      char *s_options;
};

extern struct timespec current_fs_time(struct super_block *sb);

/*
 * Snapshotting support.
 */
enum {
      SB_UNFROZEN = 0,
      SB_FREEZE_WRITE   = 1,
      SB_FREEZE_TRANS = 2,
};

#define vfs_check_frozen(sb, level) \
      wait_event((sb)->s_wait_unfrozen, ((sb)->s_frozen < (level)))

#define get_fs_excl() atomic_inc(&current->fs_excl)
#define put_fs_excl() atomic_dec(&current->fs_excl)
#define has_fs_excl() atomic_read(&current->fs_excl)

#define is_owner_or_cap(inode)      \
      ((current_fsuid() == (inode)->i_uid) || capable(CAP_FOWNER))

/* not quite ready to be deprecated, but... */
extern void lock_super(struct super_block *);
extern void unlock_super(struct super_block *);

/*
 * VFS helper functions..
 */
extern int vfs_create(struct inode *, struct dentry *, int, struct nameidata *);
extern int vfs_mkdir(struct inode *, struct dentry *, int);
extern int vfs_mknod(struct inode *, struct dentry *, int, dev_t);
extern int vfs_symlink(struct inode *, struct dentry *, const char *);
extern int vfs_link(struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int vfs_rmdir(struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int vfs_unlink(struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int vfs_rename(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);

/*
 * VFS dentry helper functions.
 */
extern void dentry_unhash(struct dentry *dentry);

/*
 * VFS file helper functions.
 */
extern int file_permission(struct file *, int);

/*
 * VFS FS_IOC_FIEMAP helper definitions.
 */
struct fiemap_extent_info {
      unsigned int fi_flags;        /* Flags as passed from user */
      unsigned int fi_extents_mapped;     /* Number of mapped extents */
      unsigned int fi_extents_max;  /* Size of fiemap_extent array */
      struct fiemap_extent *fi_extents_start; /* Start of fiemap_extent
                                     * array */
};
int fiemap_fill_next_extent(struct fiemap_extent_info *info, u64 logical,
                      u64 phys, u64 len, u32 flags);
int fiemap_check_flags(struct fiemap_extent_info *fieinfo, u32 fs_flags);

/*
 * File types
 *
 * NOTE! These match bits 12..15 of stat.st_mode
 * (ie "(i_mode >> 12) & 15").
 */
#define DT_UNKNOWN      0
#define DT_FIFO         1
#define DT_CHR          2
#define DT_DIR          4
#define DT_BLK          6
#define DT_REG          8
#define DT_LNK          10
#define DT_SOCK         12
#define DT_WHT          14

#define OSYNC_METADATA  (1<<0)
#define OSYNC_DATA      (1<<1)
#define OSYNC_INODE     (1<<2)
int generic_osync_inode(struct inode *, struct address_space *, int);

/*
 * This is the "filldir" function type, used by readdir() to let
 * the kernel specify what kind of dirent layout it wants to have.
 * This allows the kernel to read directories into kernel space or
 * to have different dirent layouts depending on the binary type.
 */
typedef int (*filldir_t)(void *, const char *, int, loff_t, u64, unsigned);
struct block_device_operations;

/* These macros are for out of kernel modules to test that
 * the kernel supports the unlocked_ioctl and compat_ioctl
 * fields in struct file_operations. */
#define HAVE_COMPAT_IOCTL 1
#define HAVE_UNLOCKED_IOCTL 1

/*
 * NOTE:
 * read, write, poll, fsync, readv, writev, unlocked_ioctl and compat_ioctl
 * can be called without the big kernel lock held in all filesystems.
 */
struct file_operations {
      struct module *owner;
      loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);
      ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
      ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
      ssize_t (*aio_read) (struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t);
      ssize_t (*aio_write) (struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t);
      int (*readdir) (struct file *, void *, filldir_t);
      unsigned int (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);
      int (*ioctl) (struct inode *, struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
      long (*unlocked_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
      long (*compat_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
      int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
      int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);
      int (*flush) (struct file *, fl_owner_t id);
      int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);
      int (*fsync) (struct file *, struct dentry *, int datasync);
      int (*aio_fsync) (struct kiocb *, int datasync);
      int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);
      int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
      ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);
      unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);
      int (*check_flags)(int);
      int (*flock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
      ssize_t (*splice_write)(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
      ssize_t (*splice_read)(struct file *, loff_t *, struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
      int (*setlease)(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **);
};

struct inode_operations {
      int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,int, struct nameidata *);
      struct dentry * (*lookup) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, struct nameidata *);
      int (*link) (struct dentry *,struct inode *,struct dentry *);
      int (*unlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
      int (*symlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,const char *);
      int (*mkdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,int);
      int (*rmdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
      int (*mknod) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,int,dev_t);
      int (*rename) (struct inode *, struct dentry *,
                  struct inode *, struct dentry *);
      int (*readlink) (struct dentry *, char __user *,int);
      void * (*follow_link) (struct dentry *, struct nameidata *);
      void (*put_link) (struct dentry *, struct nameidata *, void *);
      void (*truncate) (struct inode *);
      int (*permission) (struct inode *, int);
      int (*setattr) (struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
      int (*getattr) (struct vfsmount *mnt, struct dentry *, struct kstat *);
      int (*setxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *,const void *,size_t,int);
      ssize_t (*getxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *, void *, size_t);
      ssize_t (*listxattr) (struct dentry *, char *, size_t);
      int (*removexattr) (struct dentry *, const char *);
      void (*truncate_range)(struct inode *, loff_t, loff_t);
      long (*fallocate)(struct inode *inode, int mode, loff_t offset,
                    loff_t len);
      int (*fiemap)(struct inode *, struct fiemap_extent_info *, u64 start,
                  u64 len);
};

struct seq_file;

ssize_t rw_copy_check_uvector(int type, const struct iovec __user * uvector,
                        unsigned long nr_segs, unsigned long fast_segs,
                        struct iovec *fast_pointer,
                        struct iovec **ret_pointer);

extern ssize_t vfs_read(struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
extern ssize_t vfs_write(struct file *, const char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
extern ssize_t vfs_readv(struct file *, const struct iovec __user *,
            unsigned long, loff_t *);
extern ssize_t vfs_writev(struct file *, const struct iovec __user *,
            unsigned long, loff_t *);

struct super_operations {
      struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
      void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);

      void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *);
      int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
      void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
      void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
      void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
      void (*write_super) (struct super_block *);
      int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
      int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
      int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
      int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
      int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
      void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
      void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);

      int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct vfsmount *);
      int (*show_stats)(struct seq_file *, struct vfsmount *);
#ifdef CONFIG_QUOTA
      ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
      ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
#endif
      int (*bdev_try_to_free_page)(struct super_block*, struct page*, gfp_t);
};

/*
 * Inode state bits.  Protected by inode_lock.
 *
 * Three bits determine the dirty state of the inode, I_DIRTY_SYNC,
 * I_DIRTY_DATASYNC and I_DIRTY_PAGES.
 *
 * Four bits define the lifetime of an inode.  Initially, inodes are I_NEW,
 * until that flag is cleared.  I_WILL_FREE, I_FREEING and I_CLEAR are set at
 * various stages of removing an inode.
 *
 * Two bits are used for locking and completion notification, I_LOCK and I_SYNC.
 *
 * I_DIRTY_SYNC         Inode is dirty, but doesn't have to be written on
 *                fdatasync().  i_atime is the usual cause.
 * I_DIRTY_DATASYNC     Data-related inode changes pending. We keep track of
 *                these changes separately from I_DIRTY_SYNC so that we
 *                don't have to write inode on fdatasync() when only
 *                mtime has changed in it.
 * I_DIRTY_PAGES  Inode has dirty pages.  Inode itself may be clean.
 * I_NEW          get_new_inode() sets i_state to I_LOCK|I_NEW.  Both
 *                are cleared by unlock_new_inode(), called from iget().
 * I_WILL_FREE          Must be set when calling write_inode_now() if i_count
 *                is zero.  I_FREEING must be set when I_WILL_FREE is
 *                cleared.
 * I_FREEING            Set when inode is about to be freed but still has dirty
 *                pages or buffers attached or the inode itself is still
 *                dirty.
 * I_CLEAR        Set by clear_inode().  In this state the inode is clean
 *                and can be destroyed.
 *
 *                Inodes that are I_WILL_FREE, I_FREEING or I_CLEAR are
 *                prohibited for many purposes.  iget() must wait for
 *                the inode to be completely released, then create it
 *                anew.  Other functions will just ignore such inodes,
 *                if appropriate.  I_LOCK is used for waiting.
 *
 * I_LOCK         Serves as both a mutex and completion notification.
 *                New inodes set I_LOCK.  If two processes both create
 *                the same inode, one of them will release its inode and
 *                wait for I_LOCK to be released before returning.
 *                Inodes in I_WILL_FREE, I_FREEING or I_CLEAR state can
 *                also cause waiting on I_LOCK, without I_LOCK actually
 *                being set.  find_inode() uses this to prevent returning
 *                nearly-dead inodes.
 * I_SYNC         Similar to I_LOCK, but limited in scope to writeback
 *                of inode dirty data.  Having a separate lock for this
 *                purpose reduces latency and prevents some filesystem-
 *                specific deadlocks.
 *
 * Q: What is the difference between I_WILL_FREE and I_FREEING?
 * Q: igrab() only checks on (I_FREEING|I_WILL_FREE).  Should it also check on
 *    I_CLEAR?  If not, why?
 */
#define I_DIRTY_SYNC          1
#define I_DIRTY_DATASYNC      2
#define I_DIRTY_PAGES         4
#define I_NEW                 8
#define I_WILL_FREE           16
#define I_FREEING       32
#define I_CLEAR               64
#define __I_LOCK        7
#define I_LOCK                (1 << __I_LOCK)
#define __I_SYNC        8
#define I_SYNC                (1 << __I_SYNC)

#define I_DIRTY (I_DIRTY_SYNC | I_DIRTY_DATASYNC | I_DIRTY_PAGES)

extern void __mark_inode_dirty(struct inode *, int);
static inline void mark_inode_dirty(struct inode *inode)
{
      __mark_inode_dirty(inode, I_DIRTY);
}

static inline void mark_inode_dirty_sync(struct inode *inode)
{
      __mark_inode_dirty(inode, I_DIRTY_SYNC);
}

/**
 * inc_nlink - directly increment an inode's link count
 * @inode: inode
 *
 * This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any
 * direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink.  Currently,
 * it is only here for parity with dec_nlink().
 */
static inline void inc_nlink(struct inode *inode)
{
      inode->i_nlink++;
}

static inline void inode_inc_link_count(struct inode *inode)
{
      inc_nlink(inode);
      mark_inode_dirty(inode);
}

/**
 * drop_nlink - directly drop an inode's link count
 * @inode: inode
 *
 * This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any
 * direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink.  In cases
 * where we are attempting to track writes to the
 * filesystem, a decrement to zero means an imminent
 * write when the file is truncated and actually unlinked
 * on the filesystem.
 */
static inline void drop_nlink(struct inode *inode)
{
      inode->i_nlink--;
}

/**
 * clear_nlink - directly zero an inode's link count
 * @inode: inode
 *
 * This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any
 * direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink.  See
 * drop_nlink() for why we care about i_nlink hitting zero.
 */
static inline void clear_nlink(struct inode *inode)
{
      inode->i_nlink = 0;
}

static inline void inode_dec_link_count(struct inode *inode)
{
      drop_nlink(inode);
      mark_inode_dirty(inode);
}

/**
 * inode_inc_iversion - increments i_version
 * @inode: inode that need to be updated
 *
 * Every time the inode is modified, the i_version field will be incremented.
 * The filesystem has to be mounted with i_version flag
 */

static inline void inode_inc_iversion(struct inode *inode)
{
       spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
       inode->i_version++;
       spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
}

extern void touch_atime(struct vfsmount *mnt, struct dentry *dentry);
static inline void file_accessed(struct file *file)
{
      if (!(file->f_flags & O_NOATIME))
            touch_atime(file->f_path.mnt, file->f_path.dentry);
}

int sync_inode(struct inode *inode, struct writeback_control *wbc);

struct file_system_type {
      const char *name;
      int fs_flags;
      int (*get_sb) (struct file_system_type *, int,
                   const char *, void *, struct vfsmount *);
      void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
      struct module *owner;
      struct file_system_type * next;
      struct list_head fs_supers;

      struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
      struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;

      struct lock_class_key i_lock_key;
      struct lock_class_key i_mutex_key;
      struct lock_class_key i_mutex_dir_key;
      struct lock_class_key i_alloc_sem_key;
};

extern int get_sb_ns(struct file_system_type *fs_type, int flags, void *data,
      int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, void *, int),
      struct vfsmount *mnt);
extern int get_sb_bdev(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
      int flags, const char *dev_name, void *data,
      int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, void *, int),
      struct vfsmount *mnt);
extern int get_sb_single(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
      int flags, void *data,
      int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, void *, int),
      struct vfsmount *mnt);
extern int get_sb_nodev(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
      int flags, void *data,
      int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, void *, int),
      struct vfsmount *mnt);
void generic_shutdown_super(struct super_block *sb);
void kill_block_super(struct super_block *sb);
void kill_anon_super(struct super_block *sb);
void kill_litter_super(struct super_block *sb);
void deactivate_super(struct super_block *sb);
void deactivate_locked_super(struct super_block *sb);
int set_anon_super(struct super_block *s, void *data);
struct super_block *sget(struct file_system_type *type,
                  int (*test)(struct super_block *,void *),
                  int (*set)(struct super_block *,void *),
                  void *data);
extern int get_sb_pseudo(struct file_system_type *, char *,
      const struct super_operations *ops, unsigned long,
      struct vfsmount *mnt);
extern void simple_set_mnt(struct vfsmount *mnt, struct super_block *sb);
int __put_super_and_need_restart(struct super_block *sb);

/* Alas, no aliases. Too much hassle with bringing module.h everywhere */
#define fops_get(fops) \
      (((fops) && try_module_get((fops)->owner) ? (fops) : NULL))
#define fops_put(fops) \
      do { if (fops) module_put((fops)->owner); } while(0)

extern int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
extern struct vfsmount *kern_mount_data(struct file_system_type *, void *data);
#define kern_mount(type) kern_mount_data(type, NULL)
extern int may_umount_tree(struct vfsmount *);
extern int may_umount(struct vfsmount *);
extern long do_mount(char *, char *, char *, unsigned long, void *);
extern struct vfsmount *collect_mounts(struct path *);
extern void drop_collected_mounts(struct vfsmount *);

extern int vfs_statfs(struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);

extern int current_umask(void);

/* /sys/fs */
extern struct kobject *fs_kobj;

extern int rw_verify_area(int, struct file *, loff_t *, size_t);

#define FLOCK_VERIFY_READ  1
#define FLOCK_VERIFY_WRITE 2

#ifdef CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING
extern int locks_mandatory_locked(struct inode *);
extern int locks_mandatory_area(int, struct inode *, struct file *, loff_t, size_t);

/*
 * Candidates for mandatory locking have the setgid bit set
 * but no group execute bit -  an otherwise meaningless combination.
 */

static inline int __mandatory_lock(struct inode *ino)
{
      return (ino->i_mode & (S_ISGID | S_IXGRP)) == S_ISGID;
}

/*
 * ... and these candidates should be on MS_MANDLOCK mounted fs,
 * otherwise these will be advisory locks
 */

static inline int mandatory_lock(struct inode *ino)
{
      return IS_MANDLOCK(ino) && __mandatory_lock(ino);
}

static inline int locks_verify_locked(struct inode *inode)
{
      if (mandatory_lock(inode))
            return locks_mandatory_locked(inode);
      return 0;
}

static inline int locks_verify_truncate(struct inode *inode,
                            struct file *filp,
                            loff_t size)
{
      if (inode->i_flock && mandatory_lock(inode))
            return locks_mandatory_area(
                  FLOCK_VERIFY_WRITE, inode, filp,
                  size < inode->i_size ? size : inode->i_size,
                  (size < inode->i_size ? inode->i_size - size
                   : size - inode->i_size)
            );
      return 0;
}

static inline int break_lease(struct inode *inode, unsigned int mode)
{
      if (inode->i_flock)
            return __break_lease(inode, mode);
      return 0;
}
#else /* !CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING */
static inline int locks_mandatory_locked(struct inode *inode)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int locks_mandatory_area(int rw, struct inode *inode,
                               struct file *filp, loff_t offset,
                               size_t count)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int __mandatory_lock(struct inode *inode)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int mandatory_lock(struct inode *inode)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int locks_verify_locked(struct inode *inode)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int locks_verify_truncate(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp,
                              size_t size)
{
      return 0;
}

static inline int break_lease(struct inode *inode, unsigned int mode)
{
      return 0;
}

#endif /* CONFIG_FILE_LOCKING */

/* fs/open.c */

extern int do_truncate(struct dentry *, loff_t start, unsigned int time_attrs,
                   struct file *filp);
extern int do_fallocate(struct file *file, int mode, loff_t offset,
                  loff_t len);
extern long do_sys_open(int dfd, const char __user *filename, int flags,
                  int mode);
extern struct file *filp_open(const char *, int, int);
extern struct file * dentry_open(struct dentry *, struct vfsmount *, int,
                         const struct cred *);
extern int filp_close(struct file *, fl_owner_t id);
extern char * getname(const char __user *);

/* fs/ioctl.c */

extern int ioctl_preallocate(struct file *filp, void __user *argp);

/* fs/dcache.c */
extern void __init vfs_caches_init_early(void);
extern void __init vfs_caches_init(unsigned long);

extern struct kmem_cache *names_cachep;

#define __getname_gfp(gfp)    kmem_cache_alloc(names_cachep, (gfp))
#define __getname()           __getname_gfp(GFP_KERNEL)
#define __putname(name)       kmem_cache_free(names_cachep, (void *)(name))
#ifndef CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL
#define putname(name)   __putname(name)
#else
extern void putname(const char *name);
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
extern int register_blkdev(unsigned int, const char *);
extern void unregister_blkdev(unsigned int, const char *);
extern struct block_device *bdget(dev_t);
extern struct block_device *bdgrab(struct block_device *bdev);
extern void bd_set_size(struct block_device *, loff_t size);
extern void bd_forget(struct inode *inode);
extern void bdput(struct block_device *);
extern struct block_device *open_by_devnum(dev_t, fmode_t);
extern void invalidate_bdev(struct block_device *);
extern int sync_blockdev(struct block_device *bdev);
extern struct super_block *freeze_bdev(struct block_device *);
extern void emergency_thaw_all(void);
extern int thaw_bdev(struct block_device *bdev, struct super_block *sb);
extern int fsync_bdev(struct block_device *);
#else
static inline void bd_forget(struct inode *inode) {}
static inline int sync_blockdev(struct block_device *bdev) { return 0; }
static inline void invalidate_bdev(struct block_device *bdev) {}

static inline struct super_block *freeze_bdev(struct block_device *sb)
{
      return NULL;
}

static inline int thaw_bdev(struct block_device *bdev, struct super_block *sb)
{
      return 0;
}
#endif
extern int sync_filesystem(struct super_block *);
extern const struct file_operations def_blk_fops;
extern const struct file_operations def_chr_fops;
extern const struct file_operations bad_sock_fops;
extern const struct file_operations def_fifo_fops;
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
extern int ioctl_by_bdev(struct block_device *, unsigned, unsigned long);
extern int blkdev_ioctl(struct block_device *, fmode_t, unsigned, unsigned long);
extern long compat_blkdev_ioctl(struct file *, unsigned, unsigned long);
extern int blkdev_get(struct block_device *, fmode_t);
extern int blkdev_put(struct block_device *, fmode_t);
extern int bd_claim(struct block_device *, void *);
extern void bd_release(struct block_device *);
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
extern int bd_claim_by_disk(struct block_device *, void *, struct gendisk *);
extern void bd_release_from_disk(struct block_device *, struct gendisk *);
#else
#define bd_claim_by_disk(bdev, holder, disk)    bd_claim(bdev, holder)
#define bd_release_from_disk(bdev, disk)  bd_release(bdev)
#endif
#endif

/* fs/char_dev.c */
#define CHRDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE      255
extern int alloc_chrdev_region(dev_t *, unsigned, unsigned, const char *);
extern int register_chrdev_region(dev_t, unsigned, const char *);
extern int register_chrdev(unsigned int, const char *,
                     const struct file_operations *);
extern void unregister_chrdev(unsigned int, const char *);
extern void unregister_chrdev_region(dev_t, unsigned);
extern void chrdev_show(struct seq_file *,off_t);

/* fs/block_dev.c */
#define BDEVNAME_SIZE   32    /* Largest string for a blockdev identifier */
#define BDEVT_SIZE      10    /* Largest string for MAJ:MIN for blkdev */

#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
#define BLKDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE      255
extern const char *__bdevname(dev_t, char *buffer);
extern const char *bdevname(struct block_device *bdev, char *buffer);
extern struct block_device *lookup_bdev(const char *);
extern struct block_device *open_bdev_exclusive(const char *, fmode_t, void *);
extern void close_bdev_exclusive(struct block_device *, fmode_t);
extern void blkdev_show(struct seq_file *,off_t);

#else
#define BLKDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE      0
#endif

extern void init_special_inode(struct inode *, umode_t, dev_t);

/* Invalid inode operations -- fs/bad_inode.c */
extern void make_bad_inode(struct inode *);
extern int is_bad_inode(struct inode *);

extern const struct file_operations read_pipefifo_fops;
extern const struct file_operations write_pipefifo_fops;
extern const struct file_operations rdwr_pipefifo_fops;

extern int fs_may_remount_ro(struct super_block *);

#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
/*
 * return READ, READA, or WRITE
 */
#define bio_rw(bio)           ((bio)->bi_rw & (RW_MASK | RWA_MASK))

/*
 * return data direction, READ or WRITE
 */
#define bio_data_dir(bio)     ((bio)->bi_rw & 1)

extern void check_disk_size_change(struct gendisk *disk,
                           struct block_device *bdev);
extern int revalidate_disk(struct gendisk *);
extern int check_disk_change(struct block_device *);
extern int __invalidate_device(struct block_device *);
extern int invalidate_partition(struct gendisk *, int);
#endif
extern int invalidate_inodes(struct super_block *);
unsigned long invalidate_mapping_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
                              pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end);

static inline unsigned long __deprecated
invalidate_inode_pages(struct address_space *mapping)
{
      return invalidate_mapping_pages(mapping, 0, ~0UL);
}

static inline void invalidate_remote_inode(struct inode *inode)
{
      if (S_ISREG(inode->i_mode) || S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) ||
          S_ISLNK(inode->i_mode))
            invalidate_mapping_pages(inode->i_mapping, 0, -1);
}
extern int invalidate_inode_pages2(struct address_space *mapping);
extern int invalidate_inode_pages2_range(struct address_space *mapping,
                               pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end);
extern void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
                        struct writeback_control *wbc);
extern int write_inode_now(struct inode *, int);
extern int filemap_fdatawrite(struct address_space *);
extern int filemap_flush(struct address_space *);
extern int filemap_fdatawait(struct address_space *);
extern int filemap_write_and_wait(struct address_space *mapping);
extern int filemap_write_and_wait_range(struct address_space *mapping,
                                loff_t lstart, loff_t lend);
extern int wait_on_page_writeback_range(struct address_space *mapping,
                        pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end);
extern int __filemap_fdatawrite_range(struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t start, loff_t end, int sync_mode);
extern int filemap_fdatawrite_range(struct address_space *mapping,
                        loff_t start, loff_t end);

extern int vfs_fsync(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry, int datasync);
extern void sync_supers(void);
extern void emergency_sync(void);
extern void emergency_remount(void);
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
extern sector_t bmap(struct inode *, sector_t);
#endif
extern int notify_change(struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
extern int inode_permission(struct inode *, int);
extern int generic_permission(struct inode *, int,
            int (*check_acl)(struct inode *, int));

static inline bool execute_ok(struct inode *inode)
{
      return (inode->i_mode & S_IXUGO) || S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode);
}

extern int get_write_access(struct inode *);
extern int deny_write_access(struct file *);
static inline void put_write_access(struct inode * inode)
{
      atomic_dec(&inode->i_writecount);
}
static inline void allow_write_access(struct file *file)
{
      if (file)
            atomic_inc(&file->f_path.dentry->d_inode->i_writecount);
}
extern int do_pipe_flags(int *, int);
extern struct file *create_read_pipe(struct file *f, int flags);
extern struct file *create_write_pipe(int flags);
extern void free_write_pipe(struct file *);

extern struct file *do_filp_open(int dfd, const char *pathname,
            int open_flag, int mode, int acc_mode);
extern int may_open(struct path *, int, int);

extern int kernel_read(struct file *, loff_t, char *, unsigned long);
extern struct file * open_exec(const char *);
 
/* fs/dcache.c -- generic fs support functions */
extern int is_subdir(struct dentry *, struct dentry *);
extern ino_t find_inode_number(struct dentry *, struct qstr *);

#include <linux/err.h>

/* needed for stackable file system support */
extern loff_t default_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin);

extern loff_t vfs_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin);

extern int inode_init_always(struct super_block *, struct inode *);
extern void inode_init_once(struct inode *);
extern void inode_add_to_lists(struct super_block *, struct inode *);
extern void iput(struct inode *);
extern struct inode * igrab(struct inode *);
extern ino_t iunique(struct super_block *, ino_t);
extern int inode_needs_sync(struct inode *inode);
extern void generic_delete_inode(struct inode *inode);
extern void generic_drop_inode(struct inode *inode);

extern struct inode *ilookup5_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
            unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode *, void *),
            void *data);
extern struct inode *ilookup5(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval,
            int (*test)(struct inode *, void *), void *data);
extern struct inode *ilookup(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long ino);

extern struct inode * iget5_locked(struct super_block *, unsigned long, int (*test)(struct inode *, void *), int (*set)(struct inode *, void *), void *);
extern struct inode * iget_locked(struct super_block *, unsigned long);
extern int insert_inode_locked4(struct inode *, unsigned long, int (*test)(struct inode *, void *), void *);
extern int insert_inode_locked(struct inode *);
extern void unlock_new_inode(struct inode *);

extern void __iget(struct inode * inode);
extern void iget_failed(struct inode *);
extern void clear_inode(struct inode *);
extern void destroy_inode(struct inode *);
extern void __destroy_inode(struct inode *);
extern struct inode *new_inode(struct super_block *);
extern int should_remove_suid(struct dentry *);
extern int file_remove_suid(struct file *);

extern void __insert_inode_hash(struct inode *, unsigned long hashval);
extern void remove_inode_hash(struct inode *);
static inline void insert_inode_hash(struct inode *inode) {
      __insert_inode_hash(inode, inode->i_ino);
}

extern struct file * get_empty_filp(void);
extern void file_move(struct file *f, struct list_head *list);
extern void file_kill(struct file *f);
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
struct bio;
extern void submit_bio(int, struct bio *);
extern int bdev_read_only(struct block_device *);
#endif
extern int set_blocksize(struct block_device *, int);
extern int sb_set_blocksize(struct super_block *, int);
extern int sb_min_blocksize(struct super_block *, int);
extern int sb_has_dirty_inodes(struct super_block *);

extern int generic_file_mmap(struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
extern int generic_file_readonly_mmap(struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
extern int file_read_actor(read_descriptor_t * desc, struct page *page, unsigned long offset, unsigned long size);
int generic_write_checks(struct file *file, loff_t *pos, size_t *count, int isblk);
extern ssize_t generic_file_aio_read(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t);
extern ssize_t generic_file_aio_write(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t);
extern ssize_t generic_file_aio_write_nolock(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *,
            unsigned long, loff_t);
extern ssize_t generic_file_direct_write(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *,
            unsigned long *, loff_t, loff_t *, size_t, size_t);
extern ssize_t generic_file_buffered_write(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *,
            unsigned long, loff_t, loff_t *, size_t, ssize_t);
extern ssize_t do_sync_read(struct file *filp, char __user *buf, size_t len, loff_t *ppos);
extern ssize_t do_sync_write(struct file *filp, const char __user *buf, size_t len, loff_t *ppos);
extern int generic_segment_checks(const struct iovec *iov,
            unsigned long *nr_segs, size_t *count, int access_flags);

/* fs/splice.c */
extern ssize_t generic_file_splice_read(struct file *, loff_t *,
            struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
extern ssize_t default_file_splice_read(struct file *, loff_t *,
            struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
extern ssize_t generic_file_splice_write(struct pipe_inode_info *,
            struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
extern ssize_t generic_splice_sendpage(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe,
            struct file *out, loff_t *, size_t len, unsigned int flags);
extern long do_splice_direct(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos, struct file *out,
            size_t len, unsigned int flags);

extern void
file_ra_state_init(struct file_ra_state *ra, struct address_space *mapping);
extern loff_t no_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin);
extern loff_t generic_file_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin);
extern loff_t generic_file_llseek_unlocked(struct file *file, loff_t offset,
                  int origin);
extern int generic_file_open(struct inode * inode, struct file * filp);
extern int nonseekable_open(struct inode * inode, struct file * filp);

#ifdef CONFIG_FS_XIP
extern ssize_t xip_file_read(struct file *filp, char __user *buf, size_t len,
                       loff_t *ppos);
extern int xip_file_mmap(struct file * file, struct vm_area_struct * vma);
extern ssize_t xip_file_write(struct file *filp, const char __user *buf,
                        size_t len, loff_t *ppos);
extern int xip_truncate_page(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t from);
#else
static inline int xip_truncate_page(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t from)
{
      return 0;
}
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
ssize_t __blockdev_direct_IO(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb, struct inode *inode,
      struct block_device *bdev, const struct iovec *iov, loff_t offset,
      unsigned long nr_segs, get_block_t get_block, dio_iodone_t end_io,
      int lock_type);

enum {
      DIO_LOCKING = 1, /* need locking between buffered and direct access */
      DIO_NO_LOCKING,  /* bdev; no locking at all between buffered/direct */
      DIO_OWN_LOCKING, /* filesystem locks buffered and direct internally */
};

static inline ssize_t blockdev_direct_IO(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb,
      struct inode *inode, struct block_device *bdev, const struct iovec *iov,
      loff_t offset, unsigned long nr_segs, get_block_t get_block,
      dio_iodone_t end_io)
{
      return __blockdev_direct_IO(rw, iocb, inode, bdev, iov, offset,
                        nr_segs, get_block, end_io, DIO_LOCKING);
}

static inline ssize_t blockdev_direct_IO_no_locking(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb,
      struct inode *inode, struct block_device *bdev, const struct iovec *iov,
      loff_t offset, unsigned long nr_segs, get_block_t get_block,
      dio_iodone_t end_io)
{
      return __blockdev_direct_IO(rw, iocb, inode, bdev, iov, offset,
                        nr_segs, get_block, end_io, DIO_NO_LOCKING);
}

static inline ssize_t blockdev_direct_IO_own_locking(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb,
      struct inode *inode, struct block_device *bdev, const struct iovec *iov,
      loff_t offset, unsigned long nr_segs, get_block_t get_block,
      dio_iodone_t end_io)
{
      return __blockdev_direct_IO(rw, iocb, inode, bdev, iov, offset,
                        nr_segs, get_block, end_io, DIO_OWN_LOCKING);
}
#endif

extern const struct file_operations generic_ro_fops;

#define special_file(m) (S_ISCHR(m)||S_ISBLK(m)||S_ISFIFO(m)||S_ISSOCK(m))

extern int vfs_readlink(struct dentry *, char __user *, int, const char *);
extern int vfs_follow_link(struct nameidata *, const char *);
extern int page_readlink(struct dentry *, char __user *, int);
extern void *page_follow_link_light(struct dentry *, struct nameidata *);
extern void page_put_link(struct dentry *, struct nameidata *, void *);
extern int __page_symlink(struct inode *inode, const char *symname, int len,
            int nofs);
extern int page_symlink(struct inode *inode, const char *symname, int len);
extern const struct inode_operations page_symlink_inode_operations;
extern int generic_readlink(struct dentry *, char __user *, int);
extern void generic_fillattr(struct inode *, struct kstat *);
extern int vfs_getattr(struct vfsmount *, struct dentry *, struct kstat *);
void inode_add_bytes(struct inode *inode, loff_t bytes);
void inode_sub_bytes(struct inode *inode, loff_t bytes);
loff_t inode_get_bytes(struct inode *inode);
void inode_set_bytes(struct inode *inode, loff_t bytes);

extern int vfs_readdir(struct file *, filldir_t, void *);

extern int vfs_stat(char __user *, struct kstat *);
extern int vfs_lstat(char __user *, struct kstat *);
extern int vfs_fstat(unsigned int, struct kstat *);
extern int vfs_fstatat(int , char __user *, struct kstat *, int);

extern int do_vfs_ioctl(struct file *filp, unsigned int fd, unsigned int cmd,
                unsigned long arg);
extern int __generic_block_fiemap(struct inode *inode,
                          struct fiemap_extent_info *fieinfo, u64 start,
                          u64 len, get_block_t *get_block);
extern int generic_block_fiemap(struct inode *inode,
                        struct fiemap_extent_info *fieinfo, u64 start,
                        u64 len, get_block_t *get_block);

extern void get_filesystem(struct file_system_type *fs);
extern void put_filesystem(struct file_system_type *fs);
extern struct file_system_type *get_fs_type(const char *name);
extern struct super_block *get_super(struct block_device *);
extern struct super_block *user_get_super(dev_t);
extern void drop_super(struct super_block *sb);

extern int dcache_dir_open(struct inode *, struct file *);
extern int dcache_dir_close(struct inode *, struct file *);
extern loff_t dcache_dir_lseek(struct file *, loff_t, int);
extern int dcache_readdir(struct file *, void *, filldir_t);
extern int simple_getattr(struct vfsmount *, struct dentry *, struct kstat *);
extern int simple_statfs(struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
extern int simple_link(struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int simple_unlink(struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int simple_rmdir(struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int simple_rename(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);
extern int simple_sync_file(struct file *, struct dentry *, int);
extern int simple_empty(struct dentry *);
extern int simple_readpage(struct file *file, struct page *page);
extern int simple_prepare_write(struct file *file, struct page *page,
                  unsigned offset, unsigned to);
extern int simple_write_begin(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
                  loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
                  struct page **pagep, void **fsdata);
extern int simple_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
                  loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
                  struct page *page, void *fsdata);

extern struct dentry *simple_lookup(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct nameidata *);
extern ssize_t generic_read_dir(struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
extern const struct file_operations simple_dir_operations;
extern const struct inode_operations simple_dir_inode_operations;
struct tree_descr { char *name; const struct file_operations *ops; int mode; };
struct dentry *d_alloc_name(struct dentry *, const char *);
extern int simple_fill_super(struct super_block *, int, struct tree_descr *);
extern int simple_pin_fs(struct file_system_type *, struct vfsmount **mount, int *count);
extern void simple_release_fs(struct vfsmount **mount, int *count);

extern ssize_t simple_read_from_buffer(void __user *to, size_t count,
                  loff_t *ppos, const void *from, size_t available);

extern int simple_fsync(struct file *, struct dentry *, int);

#ifdef CONFIG_MIGRATION
extern int buffer_migrate_page(struct address_space *,
                        struct page *, struct page *);
#else
#define buffer_migrate_page NULL
#endif

extern int inode_change_ok(struct inode *, struct iattr *);
extern int __must_check inode_setattr(struct inode *, struct iattr *);

extern void file_update_time(struct file *file);

extern int generic_show_options(struct seq_file *m, struct vfsmount *mnt);
extern void save_mount_options(struct super_block *sb, char *options);
extern void replace_mount_options(struct super_block *sb, char *options);

static inline ino_t parent_ino(struct dentry *dentry)
{
      ino_t res;

      spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
      res = dentry->d_parent->d_inode->i_ino;
      spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
      return res;
}

/* Transaction based IO helpers */

/*
 * An argresp is stored in an allocated page and holds the
 * size of the argument or response, along with its content
 */
struct simple_transaction_argresp {
      ssize_t size;
      char data[0];
};

#define SIMPLE_TRANSACTION_LIMIT (PAGE_SIZE - sizeof(struct simple_transaction_argresp))

char *simple_transaction_get(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
                        size_t size);
ssize_t simple_transaction_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
                        size_t size, loff_t *pos);
int simple_transaction_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file);

void simple_transaction_set(struct file *file, size_t n);

/*
 * simple attribute files
 *
 * These attributes behave similar to those in sysfs:
 *
 * Writing to an attribute immediately sets a value, an open file can be
 * written to multiple times.
 *
 * Reading from an attribute creates a buffer from the value that might get
 * read with multiple read calls. When the attribute has been read
 * completely, no further read calls are possible until the file is opened
 * again.
 *
 * All attributes contain a text representation of a numeric value
 * that are accessed with the get() and set() functions.
 */
#define DEFINE_SIMPLE_ATTRIBUTE(__fops, __get, __set, __fmt)            \
static int __fops ## _open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)      \
{                                                     \
      __simple_attr_check_format(__fmt, 0ull);              \
      return simple_attr_open(inode, file, __get, __set, __fmt);  \
}                                                     \
static struct file_operations __fops = {                    \
      .owner       = THIS_MODULE,                                 \
      .open  = __fops ## _open,                             \
      .release = simple_attr_release,                             \
      .read  = simple_attr_read,                            \
      .write       = simple_attr_write,                           \
};

static inline void __attribute__((format(printf, 1, 2)))
__simple_attr_check_format(const char *fmt, ...)
{
      /* don't do anything, just let the compiler check the arguments; */
}

int simple_attr_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file,
                 int (*get)(void *, u64 *), int (*set)(void *, u64),
                 const char *fmt);
int simple_attr_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
ssize_t simple_attr_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
                   size_t len, loff_t *ppos);
ssize_t simple_attr_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
                    size_t len, loff_t *ppos);

struct ctl_table;
int proc_nr_files(struct ctl_table *table, int write, struct file *filp,
              void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos);

int __init get_filesystem_list(char *buf);

#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
#endif /* _LINUX_FS_H */

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